1.Introduction to basic SQL*Plus and SQL commands in oracle 9iadmin July 7, 2020 16 Comments
A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model as invented by E. F. Codd, of IBM’s San Jose Research Laboratory. Many popular databases currently in use are based on the relational database model.RDBMSs have become a predominant choice for the storage of information in new databases used for financial records, manufacturing and logistical information, personnel data, and much more since the 1980s. Relational databases have often replaced legacy hierarchical databases and network databases because they are easier to understand and use. However, relational databases have been challenged by object databases, which were introduced in an attempt to address the object-relational impedance mismatch in relational database, and XML databases.
Object-relational database management system (ORDBMS)
An object-relational database can be said to provide a middle ground between relational databases and object-oriented databases (OODBMS). In object-relational databases, the approach is essentially that of relational databases: the data resides in the database and is manipulated collectively with queries in a query language; at the other extreme are OODBMSes in which the database is essentially a persistent object store for software written in an object-oriented programming language, with a programming API for storing and retrieving objects, and little or no specific support for querying.
Object-relational database management systems grew out of research that occurred in the early 1990s. That research extended existing relational database concepts by adding object concepts. The researchers aimed to retain a declarative query-language based on predicate calculus as a central component of the architecture. Probably the most notable research project, Postgres (UC Berkeley), spawned two products tracing their lineage to that research: Illustra and PostgreSQL.
Many of the ideas of early object-relational database efforts have largely become incorporated into SQL:1999 via structured types. In fact, any product that adheres to the object-oriented aspects of SQL:1999 could be described as an object-relational database management product. For example, IBM’s DB2, Oracle database, and Microsoft SQL Server, make claims to support this technology and do so with varying degrees of success.
SQL(Structures Query Language)
SQL was initially developed at IBM by Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce in the early 1970s. This version, initially called SEQUEL (Structured English Query Language), was designed to manipulate and retrieve data stored in IBM’s original quasi-relational database management system, System R, which a group at IBM San Jose Research Laboratory had developed during the 1970s.The acronym SEQUEL was later changed to SQL because “SEQUEL” was a trademark of the UK-based Hawker Siddeley aircraft company.
SQL*Plus is a command line SQL and PL/SQL language interface and reporting tool that ships with the Oracle Database Client and Server software. It can be used interactively or driven from scripts. SQL*Plus is frequently used by DBAs and Developers to interact with the Oracle database.
If you are familiar with other databases, sqlplus is equivalent to:
“sql” in Ingres,
“isql” in Sybase and SQL Server,
“sqlcmd” in Microsoft SQL Server,
“db2” in IBM DB2,
“psql” in PostgreSQL, and
“mysql” in MySQL.
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